The effect produced by singing depends upon the depth of feeling of the singer. The voice of a sympathetic singer is quite different from that of one who is heartless. However artificially cultivated a voice may be, it will never produce feeling, grace and beauty unless the heart be cultivated also. Singing has a twofold source of interest: the grace of music, and the beauty of poetry. In proportion as the singer feels the words he sings, an effect is produced upon the listeners; his heart, so to speak, accompanies the song.
Khan, Hazrat Inayat. The Mysticism of Sound and Music: Revised Edition (Shambhala Dragon Editions) (p. 164). Shambhala Publications. Kindle Edition.
A pedagogical topic long neglected is a discussion on the pre-phonatory impulse to sing. When we make sounds with our vocal folds, there is always an intention behind these vocal vibrations. Babies without language have no recourse except sound to communicate their states of being. A perceptive mother can interpret very quickly sounds of impatience, hunger, annoyance, fatigue or boredom.
This question of impulse would indicate a pedagogical issue more psychological than technical/physical. David Clark Taylor discussed this a century ago when he encouraged singers to work from their ears to develop their concept of tone. The best teachers of the Old School recommended hearing great singing regularly to develop their ears and artistry. (In painting, one studies the works of the Masters as well.)
Let him hear as much as he can the most celebrated Singers, and likewise the most excellent instrumental Performers; because, from the Attention in hearing them, one reaps more Advantage than from any Instruction whatsoever.
Tosi, Pier Francesco. Opinioni de’cantori antichi, e moderni, o sieno Osservazioni sopra il canto figurato di Pierfrancesco Tosi… Dedicate a Sua Eccellenza Mylord Peterborough... L. dalla Volpe, 1723.
In addition to these values, every successful singer attests to specific inner feelings and impulses which preclude making vocal sound: expansiveness, joy, love, well-being. Marie Withrow, in her book Some Staccato Notes for Singers (1915), encourages a joyous approach to singing when she writes:
The singer must express all Moods and Emotions with his voice, but LIVE habitually with the JOYOUS (p. 8). Let there be positive physical JOY in all so-called breathing exercises (p. 41).
This view of working joyously is a pedagogical approach mentioned by many authors. Clara Kathleen Rogers, (stage name Clara Doria, whom I have covered in this blog) in Your Voice and You (1925) wrote the following:
There is nothing that stimulates the impulse to voice the emotions so urgently as a general sensation of well-being. Consciousness of the joy of living as motive-power to a natural outburst of song. You have, of course, experienced this; we all have (p.4).
Cornelius Reid, writing in his Dictionary of Vocal Terminology (1983), had this to say:
Most of the subtle adjustments made in “coloring” the vowel are emotionally oriented. They take position as a response to feelings commonly associated with vocal literature such as love, anger, fear, disdain, happiness, longing, jealousy, and the like. However, before the ultimate purpose of singing is confronted, i.e., to convey with great sensitivity a full range of emotional experience episodically, the pure joy of making sound for its own sake must be developed. How the singer relates to this is another important aspect of vocal color, for the QUALITY of his identification, his response to feeling THROUGH feeling, will in the long run establish his value as an artist (p. 291).
One of the complaints of this writer is the pervasive generalized emotionless ‘dark’ quality cultivated in modern classical singing. Sounds that might be described as grave, woofy, grim, and even sepulchral. This pervades even the most joyous music. (Let us not forget that when Garcia described the two timbres voix claire and voix sombrée he placed them within a context of emotional expression – not technical achievement!!)
And most importantly, could these dark sounds be due to the fact that voice training has prioritized technical rectitude over emotional expression?
In an era when anatomical and acoustic discussion are flourishing, it cannot be ignored that many technically proficient voices neglect to bring their souls to their work. Conversely, technically limited voices can enchant and beguile if their emotional connection has not been severed. It would appear connection to one’s soul is the sine qua non of exceptional singing in ANY style.
Imagine my surprise when I found the article “Consequences From Emotional Stimulus on Breathing for Singing” by Viggo Pettersen and Kåre Bjørkey published in the Journal of Voice, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2009. Their research found that classical singers change their breathing patterns when they vocalize using emotional stimulus compared with using no emotional stimulus. These results implied that vocalizing using emotional stimulus facilitates a more prominent role for lower lateral abdominal activity in the positioning of the abdominal wall and thorax than observed when vocalizing using no emotional stimulus.
This study illuminates the fact that breathing for singing is more delicate and finely tuned than we can imagine. And more to the point: what attempts do control, manipulation, or management have on the emotional health and expression of the singer? What occurs in the psyche of the singer if these emotional expressions are not ‘released’? Could this emotional repression explain why so many voices tend to be rather darkened, postured, and pre-conceived?
How can we transform our singing with more soul and heart?
It’s a private, personal affair and perhaps should first be done in solitude. Perhaps it can be brought about through meditation, or activities that inspire awe or wonder: starry nights under a blanket of stars, stained glass windows in a church, the expanse of an open field, walking on a beach at twilight, being in the presence of great art in a museum, a particular musical composition which leads to feelings of exaltation. When I am in these situations I always end up singing – I just can’t help it. Most singers would agree with me about this ‘feeling’ as well.
There is a connection between these feelings of awe and exaltation with the act of singing. I would call this the ‘singer’s sense.’ It is a tremendous feeling of uplift, health, and controlled excitement. It is a lovely, wonderful feeling that sends a positive charge throughout the body, and prepares one to share oneself through the medium of voice. It is not anxious, but energetic, and yet peaceful at the same time.
This impulse cannot be taught directly in a voice studio by a teacher. It can only be stimulated and then cultivated. Every vocal scale should ideally be prefaced with this impulse to sing. It renders an instant LIVING emotionality to the voice which when missing renders the voice lifeless and unengaging – dead. The singer should NEVER sing without this sensation, and should strive constantly to affirm it, by ‘filling the well,’ of beautiful images, sights, and sounds in their daily life.
Beautiful singing should come from beautiful souls. To cultivate the voice is to cultivate the soul. If the voice is the only thing being cultivated, the essential lifeforce of the singer has been lost in a sea of meaningless technical perfection.
The only reason for mastering technique is to make sure the body does not prevent the soul from expressing itself.
La Meri, (1898-1988) American Dancer